Government Structure

South Korea

South Korea or Republic of Korea is a Democratic State where according to its constitution shall seek unification, formulate and carry out a policy of peaceful unification based on freedom and democratic principles.

THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH:

Is conformed by the President, Prime minister who may conform also the State Council plus other executive members whose number can not be more than thirty and no less than fifteen.

Executive power lies on the Executive Branch headed by the President who is the Head of State and represent the State vis-a-vis foreign states.  His responsibility is to safeguard the independence, territorial integrity and continuity of the State and the Constitution, being presidential duty to pursue sincerely the peaceful unification of the homeland. He is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces

The Prime Minister is appointed by the President with the consent of the National Assembly and his function is to assist the President and under his order direct the Executive Ministries. The President appoints the heads of executive ministries between the members of the state council with the recommendation of the Prime Minister.

LEGISLATIVE BRANCH:

The legislative power is represented by the National Assembly, integrated of members directly elected with a term in office of four years. The number of members is determined by Act, but not be less than 200.

The sessions of the National Assembly have to be open to the public and its duties are initiate or pass bills, deliberate and decides upon the national budget bill, determine types and rate of taxes, when executive decide to issue bonds the National Assembly it must have the prior concurrence of the National Assembly; it also have the right to consent to the declaration of war, the dispatch of armed forces to foreign states, and the stationing of alien forces in the South Korean territory and have the right to consent to the conclusion and ratification of treaties.

JUDICIARY BRANCH:

Its composed by  the Supreme Court that is the highest court of the State, and other courts at specified levels.

According to the constitution there must be a Supreme Court Justices at the Supreme Court and its judges other than Supreme Court Justices may be assigned to the Supreme Court.

The President should appoint the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court with the consent of the National Assembly and the Supreme Court Justices but this second one on the recommendation of the Chief Justice and with the consent of the National Assembly.

The Chief Justice with the consent of the Conference of Supreme Court Justices will appoint other Judges.

The term in office of the Chief Justice is six years and cannot be reappointed, while the Justices of the Supreme Court with the same term in office can be be reappointed. The term in office of other judges is ten years, and can be reappointed under the conditions as prescribed by law.

LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

The types of local governments may vary from each other it will be determined by law; local governments must deal with administrative issues about welfare of local residents, property management, and may enact provisions relating to local autonomy.

A local government shall have a council in which the elections of their members, procedures and organizations of it will also be determined by law.

 

Source:

http://korea.assembly.go.kr/res/low_01_read.jsp

 

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