The main political parties and coalitions in Malaysia include
- Barisan Nasional (BN), a coalition of three race-based political parties dominated by the United Malays National Organization (UMNO), Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) and Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC).
- Pakatan Harapan (PH), a coalition comprises Democratic Action Party (DAP), Parti Keadilan Rakyat (KEADILAN, People’s Justice Party), Parti Amanah Negara (AMANAH, National Trust Party).
- Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia (PPBM, Malaysian United Indigenous Party), a former member party in the PH coalition.
- Parti Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS, Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party).
- Parti Warisan Sabah (WARISAN, Sabah Heritage Party).
- Gabungan Bersatu Sabah (GBS), a Sabah-based party alliance consists of Parti Bersatu Sabah (PBS, United Sabah Party), Parti Solidariti Tanah Airku (STAR, Homeland Solidarity Party) and Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah (PBRS, United Sabah People’s Party).
- Gabungan Parti Sarawak (GPS, Sarawak Parties Coalition), a Sarawak-based party alliance consists of Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu (PBB, United Bumiputera Heritage Party), Parti Rakyat Sarawak (PRS, Sarawak Peoples’ Party), Progressive Democratic Party (PDP) and Sarawak United Peoples’ Party (SUPP).
- Other active political parties that do not have representation in the parliament and the state legislative assemblies such as Parti Sosialis Malaysia (PSM, Socialist Party of Malaysia), Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia (GERAKAN, Malaysian People’s Movement Party), etc.
As of September 2020, the federal ruling party is Perikatan Nasional (PN, National Alliance) formed between BN, PAS, PPBM and GPS.
PDF : Political Campaign Planing Manual (NDI: 2009)
PDF : The Sarawak Chinese Voters and Their Support for the Democratic Action Party (DAP) (Southeast Asian Studies: 1996)
Link : Political Parties and Associations (Malaysia) (CWR Flags) – This page collects Malaysian political party flags and their meanings.