Government and Administrative Divisions
Indonesia is an independent, sovereign, and unitary state in the form of a republic.
The President of the Republic of Indonesia shall hold the power of government in accordance with the Constitution. The President shall be assisted by the VicePresident and Ministers of State. Both the President and VicePresident shall be directly elected by the people. The President is also the Supreme Commander of Armed Forces.
Executive Branch is comprised of Ministers under the chairmanship of the President. The President appoints Ministers of State. Each Minister of State shall hold responsibilities for a particular area of Government activities. Matters on ministries of state shall be regulated by law.
The People’s Consultative Assembly known as Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (MPR) is the Legislative Branch of the nation. It is made up of members of two bodies: the People’s Representative Council known as Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) and the Council of Representatives of the Regions known as Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (DPD).
The People’s Representative Council is comprised of 560 members who are elected though a general election. The structure of the DPR shall be regulated by law. The DPR shall conduct legislative, budgeting, and oversight functions.
The Council of Representatives of the Regions is comprised of 132 members who are elected from every province through a general election. The total number of members of the DPD in every province shall be the same, and the total membership shall not exceed a third of the total membership of the DPR. The structure of the DPD shall be regulated by law. The primary function of the DPD is to work on the issues regarding regional autonomy, the relationship of central and local government, formation, expansion and merger of regions, management of natural resources and other economic resources, and financial balance between the center and the regions.
Indonesia has an independent judiciary comprised of the Supreme Court, public courts, religious affairs courts, military tribunals, state administrative courts, and a Constitutional Court.
The judicial power shall possess the power to organize the judicature in order to enforce law and justice.
The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body heading the judicial power of the country.
Candidate justices of the Supreme Court shall be proposed by the Judicial Commission to the DPR for approval and shall subsequently be formally appointed by the President. The Chair and ViceChair of the Supreme Court shall be elected by and from the justices of the Supreme Court. The structure of the Supreme Court shall be regulated by law.
There shall be an independent Judicial Commission which shall possesses the authority to propose candidates for appointment as justices of the Supreme Court. The members of the Judicial Commission shall be appointed and dismissed by the President with the approval of the DPR. The Constitutional Court shall be composed of nine persons who shall be constitutional justices and who shall be confirmed by the President, of whom three shall be nominated by the Supreme Court, three nominated by the DPR, and three nominated by the President. There shall be a free and independent Supreme Audit Board known as Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan (BPK) in order to investigate the management and accountability of state finances. The members of BPK shall be chosen by the DPR with regard to any considerations of the DPD and shall be appointed by the President.
Local Administrative Units
The local administrative unit in Indonesia is the provinces. Those provinces shall be divided into regencies (kabupaten) and municipalities (kota). Each of these shall have regional authorities that are regulated by law. The regional authorities shall administer and manage their own affairs according to the principles of regional autonomy and the duty of assistance (tugas pembantuan). The authorities of the provinces, regencies and municipalities shall include for each a Regional People’s House of Representatives known as Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah (DPRD) whose members shall be elected through general elections. Also, Governors, Regents (bupati) and Mayors (walikota), respectively as head of regional government of the provinces, regencies and municipalities, shall be elected democratically.