Government Structure

Cambodia has a constitutional monarchy. The executive branch is headed by a prime minister and is composed of cabinet members constitutionally responsible to the National Assembly (the lower house of parliament). The Head of the State is the King, currently King Norodom Sihamoni, and a throne council selects the king.

It has a bicameral legislature, the National Assembly (lower house with 123 seats for five years. The Senate (upper house) has a 61‐member who can hold office for 6 years.

Executive Branch

The Executive Branch is comprised of the Council of Ministers which functions as the Royal Government. The Prime Minister and Ministers shall lead the Council of Ministers. The Prime Minister is the Head of the Government of Cambodia. A candidate for the Prime Minister who is a member of the majority party or majority coalition shall be nominated by them and appointed by the King. The Prime Minister shall nominate the Ministers who shall finally be appointed by the King. The Prime Minister also shall assign a Deputy Prime Minister to oversee the working sessions. The structures and activities of the Council of Ministers shall be defined by law.

Legislative Branch

Cambodia has a bicameral parliamentary system – The National Assembly (lower house) and the Senate (upper house).

The National Assembly is  comprised of a minimum of 120 members who are elected by universal suffrage. The term for the members of the Assembly shall be five years and finish when the new National Assembly opens. The procedure of the election shall be defined by law.

The Senate is composed of members whose number is no more than half of the entire members of the National Assembly. The members of the Senate shall be chosen through three different ways: the two shall be appointed by the King, the two shall be elected by the National Assembly and the others shall be elected by members of the National Assembly and local Commune councilors. The term for the members of the Senate shall be six years and finish when the new Senate convenes.

The Congress shall be formed as necessary when the National Assembly and Senate hold a joint meeting in order to solve serious problems of the nation.

In addition, the National Congress shall be formed once a year where the people can directly understand various matters of national interests, present problems and ask the State to solve. The structure and activities of the National Congress shall be prescribed by law.

The Judiciary

The Judiciary of Cambodia is comprised of the Supreme Court, Municipal and Provincial courts, appellate court and military court. The King shall guarantee the independence of the judiciary with the support by the Supreme Council of the Magistracy which shall be formed by law. The structure and activities of the Supreme Council of the Magistracy shall be regulated by law. The King shall chair Supreme Council of the Magistracy or the representative who chairs the Supreme Council of the Magistracy shall be appointed by the King. The King shall appoint the Judges and prosecutors to all courts with regard to the recommendation made by the Supreme Council of the Magistracy.

The Constitutional Council exercise supervision over the implementation of the Constitution. The members of the Council are comprised of nine members who serve for nine-year term. One-third of the members shall be replaced every three years: three of them shall be appointed by the King, three by the Assembly and the remaining three by the Supreme Council of the Magistracy. The Chief of the Council shall be elected by the members of the Constitutional Council.

Local Administrative Units

Local Administrative Units in Cambodia is Provinces and Municipalities. Provinces shall be divided into Districts (Srok) and Communes (Khum), while Municipalities shall be divided into Khan and Sangkat. The governance for Provinces, Municipalities, Districts, Communes, Khan and Sangkat shall be defined by law.

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