Government and Administrative Divisions
Myanmar is a unitary, independent and sovereign Nation in the form of a Republic of the Union.
The President is the Head of the Union and the Head of Executive. The President shall be elected by the Presidential Electoral College which is formed with three groups of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw representatives. These groups are comprised of a group formed with elected Hluttaw representatives in the Hluttaw with an equal number of representatives elected from Regions and States, a group formed with elected Hluttaw representatives in the Hluttaw elected on the basis of township and population, and a group formed with the Defence Services personnel Hluttaw representatives nominated by the CommanderinChief of the Defence Services. A presidential candidate must meet the qualifications to hold office that are noted in the Constitution and are sometimes seen as ‘controversial’.
Executive Branch is comprised of Ministers, VicePresident, and the Attorney General of the Union under the chairmanship of the President. The President shall appoint the Ministers of the Union Government and designate the number of the Union Ministers as necessary. Each group that forms the Presidential Electoral College shall elect a VicePresident from among the Hluttaw representatives or from among persons who are not Hluttaw representatives. The President also shall appoint the Attorney General of the Union in order to seek legal advice and assign duties on legal matters.
The National Parliament known as the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw is the Legislative Branch of the Union. It is comprised of the two Hluttaws: One is the People’s Assembly known as the Pyithu Hluttaw and another is the National Assembly known as the Amyotha Hluttaw. The Pyithu Hluttaw shall be formed with a maximum of 440 Hluttaw representatives. Not more than 330 Pyithu Hluttaw representatives shall be directly elected. Not more than 110 Pyithu Hluttaw representatives who are from the Defence Services shall be nominated by the CommanderinChief of the Defence Services with regard to the law. The Pyithu Hluttaw serves for fiveyear terms from the day of its first session.
The Amyotha Hluttaw shall be formed with a maximum of 224 Hluttaw representatives. 168 Amyotha Hluttaw representatives shall be elected in an equal number of 12 representatives from each Region or State inclusive of relevant Union territories, including one representative from each SelfAdministered Division or SelfAdministered Zone. 56 Amyotha Hluttaw representatives who are from the Defence Services shall be nominated by the Commanderin-Chief of the Defence Services with regard to the law, including four representatives from each Region or State of relevant Union territories. The term of the Amyotha Hluttaw is the same as the term of the Pyithu Hluttaw. The term of the Amyotha Hluttaw expires when the term of the Pyithu Hluttaw expires.
Myanmar has an judiciary comprised of Supreme Court of the Union, High Courts of the Region, High Courts of the State, Courts of the SelfAdministered Division, Courts of the Self-Administered Zone, District Courts, Township Courts and the other Courts set out by law. There are also CourtsMartial and Constitutional Tribunal of the Union.
The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body heading the judicial power of the country. The Chief Justice of the Union is the Head of a Supreme Court. The President shall appoint the Chief Justice of the Union who is the Head of a Supreme Court with the approval of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. The President who gets supports from the Chief Justice of the Union also shall appoint the Judges of the Supreme Court with the approval of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. The number of Judges including the Chief Justice shall be from seven to eleven. Both the Chief Justice of the Union and the Judges of the Supreme Court shall stay in their positions up to 70 years old if no specific situations noted in the Constitution occur. Duties, powers and rights of the Chief Justice of the Union and the Judges of the Supreme Court shall be regulated by law.
Local Administrative Units
The local administrative unit in Myanmar is the Region, State and the Union Territories. There are seven Regions and seven States in Myanmar. Those Regions and States shall be divided into SelfAdministered Divisions, townships, districts, wards, villages and so on.
Each Region and State have the Region Hulttaw and the State Hulttaw those have power to make law for the whole or any part of the Regions or States. The Region Hulttaw and the State Hulttaw are comprised of the members who are elected and representatives from the Defence Services. The President shall appoint the Chief Minister of the Region or State with the approval of the Region or State Hulttaw. The Chief Minister of the Region or State shall select the candidates for the Ministers of the Region or State who shall be finally appointed by the President.