The Law on Political Parties provides that citizens of Mongolia have the right to form, join and leave political parties, as well as participate in political activities that are in accordance with the law, rules and platform of the party. However, a citizen is only allowed to join one political party.
A political party is “considered as a union of Mongolian citizens who have consolidated voluntarily with the purpose of organizing social, personal and political activities as it is stated in the Constitution of Mongolia.”
Mongolia began restructuring its government to become a multi-party system after the decline of the power of the Soviet Union. Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (MPRP) used to be the sole ruling party. It remained as one of the country’s major power holder, especially after the Soviet withdrawal. Opposition parties which form the coalition Democratic Party (DP) have since won majority in parliament, seated a Prime Minister and elected a President for the first time in 2009.
The key political parties in Mongolia at present are the following:
- The Mongolian People’s Party, formerly the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party, it remains as one of the largest, most unified parties. After it dropped the term ‘Revolutionary’ in 2011, former Prime Minister N. Enkhbayar registered his own party as ‘Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party.’
- Democratic Party (Ardchilsan Nam), a union of the Mongolian National Democratic Party and the Mongolian Social Democratic Party in December 2000.
- Civic Will Party, founded by S. Oyun, a well-respected politician and the only woman in the Parliament. It has combined with the Republican Party to become the Civil Will-Republican Party.
- Justice Coalition, formed in 2012 out of the new Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (of former President Enkhbayar) and Mongolian National Democratic Party.
- Motherland Democracy Coalition, union of the Motherland Party and Democratic Party; promotes democratic principles in Mongolian politics.